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香料群岛:中国是如何失去马六甲失去东南亚的7(转载)

发布日期:2011-02-14  2011-02-14日文章 2011年精华 2011年02月精华
香料群岛:中国是如何失去马六甲失去东南亚的7(转载)
香料群岛:中国是如何失去马六甲失去东南亚的
译文导读:"马六甲困局 "扼住了今天中国经济和工业的咽喉。这条生命线的命名,源于马六甲王国。马六甲王国是中国的朝贡附属国,是郑和的海军基地,是中国在东南亚最重要的支点。它控制范围下的南洋诸岛——也就是后来的香料群岛——也是明王朝的势力范围。马六甲和香料群岛有什么故事?中国是怎么失去它们的?
  ——————————————————————
    敬请关注明日专题马来西亚。The Melaka Sultanate
    
    马六甲王朝 (满剌加苏丹国)
    
    http://www.tourism-melaka.com/emelakainfo/melaka%20sultanate.pdf
    
    
    
    【译者注:马六甲海峡是马来西亚和印尼之间的海峡,海峡的北面是马来半岛,南面是印尼的苏门答腊岛。海峡全长约1080公里,西北部最宽达370公里,东南部最窄处只有37公里。目前中国的石油进口都以海运为主,其中有80%左右要经过马六甲海峡。因此,这条航线可以被视为中国的资源生命线。这条航线同时也是日本的海上生命线。】
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    The Melaka Sultanate was founded by Parameswara in 1401. He was a fugitive prince from Palembang in Sumatra, and had arrived in Melaka via Temasik, the Singapore of old. According to legend, he was so impressed by a fleeing mouse-deer that had turned to kick at his hunting dogs, he decided to build a settlement on the spot where he was leaning against a Melaka tree.
    
    
    
    马六甲王朝由拜里米苏拉*在1401开创。他是从苏门答腊岛的巨港**逃亡出来的王子,经由淡马锡(新加坡旧称)到达了马六甲。根据传说,一只逃亡的鼷鹿在此踢飞了他追击的猎犬,给他留下了深刻印象,于是他决定在当时所倚靠马六甲树之处定居。
    
    
    
    【译者注
    
    *拜里米苏拉或拜里迷苏剌 (马来语:Parameswara 1344年─1424年),著名的满剌加苏丹国(马六甲王朝)创始人。依据马来史记(Sejarah Melayu)原为室利佛逝,巨港(现今印尼苏门答腊)东南区域的王子,传统信奉印度教混合佛教。
    
    **巨港,音译“巴邻旁”。印度尼西亚城市,南苏门答腊省首府,苏门答腊岛南部最大港口与贸易中心。
    
    】
    
    
    
    In 1414, Parameswara embraced Islam, changed his name to Megat Iskandar Shah, and married a Muslim princess from Pasai, Sumatra. The move attracted Muslim traders to the port, bringing it instant international fame. Maintaining good relations with Ming China, he sent mission after mission to Peking in 1415, 1416 and 1418. Upon his death in 1424, Megat Iskandar Shah was succeeded by his son Sri Maharaja (1424-1444) whose first mission was to visit Emperor Yung Lo of Ming China to inform of his father’s death, and also to pay his respects as the new ruler of Melaka.
    
    
    
    1414年,拜里迷苏剌皈依了******教*,改名依斯甘达沙**,娶了苏门答腊岛上帕赛王国***的公主为妻。这些举动吸引了穆斯林商人们来到这个港口,从而很快就赢得了国际声誉。为了维持和明朝的良好关系,他在1415年1416年和1418年一次又一次地派出使团前往北京****。依斯甘达沙死于1424年,其子斯里马哈拉惹(马来文Sri Maharaja1424-1444)继位,他的首个使命就是去面见中国明朝的永乐大帝,报告其父之死,并以马六甲新任统治者的身份来朝拜致敬。
    
    
    
    
    
    【
    
    译者注
    
    *拜里迷苏剌原是印度教徒。郑和1405年起历次下西洋都以马六甲为海上基地,郑和是虔诚的******教徒。
    
    **依斯甘达沙,依斯甘达是依据马其顿的亚历山大大帝取名,“沙”Shah是古波斯君主称呼
    
    ***Pasai,帕赛王国,在苏门答腊岛北段,穆斯林国家
    
    ****据明史记载,早在永乐元年(1403年)就有马六甲时节随明朝使节返京。“九年,其王率妻子陪臣五百四十余人来朝。”
    
    】
    
    
    
    Sultan Muzaffar Shah (1446-1456) the son of Sri Maharaja and grandson of Megat Iskandar Shah alias Parameswara, ascended the Melaka throne in 1446 succeeding his elder brother, Raja Ibrahim. He was the first Malay ruler to use the Arabian title of "Sultan", and to formulate the Melaka Laws known as Risalah Hukum Kanun in Arabic. During his reign, he forged stronger relations with Ming China in order to protect the sovereignty and prosperity of Melaka.
    
    
    
    斯里马哈拉惹的儿子,苏丹穆扎法沙在1446年即位,他是首个使用阿拉伯“苏丹”称呼的马来君主,并制定了马六甲法律(Risalah Hukum Kanun)。在他的统治期间,他加强深化了和明王朝的关系,以保护统治权和马六甲的繁荣。
    
    
    
    At its peak, Melaka became the most important port in the East, between the Mediterranean Sea and China. Over 80 languages were spoken there, and at times there were more than 4,000 traders housed in special quarters. There was the Indian quarter, the Chinese quarter, the Javanese quarter, and others. They were treated well and warehouses were made available to store their goods. The Syahbandar or the Port Authority took care of their needs, while the Melaka fleet, comprising 40 to 100 ships, guaranteed the safety of the merchants and their goods.
    
    
    
    马六甲在巅峰期成为间于地中海与中国之间的最重要的东方港口。有超过80种语言通行于此,而且时常有超过4000名商人驻扎在不同商馆中。这里有印度商馆,中国商馆,爪哇商馆,等等。他们被盛情接待,并有专用仓库存放货物。港主 (syahbandar)或者港口当局会照顾他们的需求,而由40到100艘舰艇组成的马六甲舰队则保证了商人和货物的安全。
    
    
    
    The source of food for Melaka was in Indonesia, which also had an abundant supply of spices to offer the international market at that time. Ships from Melaka regularly sailed to Demak, Grisek and Japara in Eastern Java to transport these necessary items home for use and re-sale.
    
    
    
    马六甲的食品来源是印度尼西亚,此外印尼还为当时的国际市场大量供应了香料。马六甲的船队定期航向东爪哇的Demak, Grisek以及 Japara,运回这些必需品以供消费和转售。
    
    
    
    The Straits of Melaka provided excellent shelter from the prevailing storms raging in the open ocean. In those days, prior to silting problems, the port could handle ocean-going vessels from all over the world. The Melaka Sultanate enjoyed a good relationship with the Ming Emperors of China, namely Emperor Yung Lo. The Chinese provided Melaka protection from the Siamese and other enemies. In this way, the area was safe and full of promise and prosperity.
    
    
    
    对于盛行于开阔大洋上狂暴肆虐的风暴,马六甲海峡提供了极佳的避风港。当年,在淤塞问题发生之前,马六甲港能停靠全世界各种远洋船只。而马六甲王国也很受益于他们与中国大明皇帝-也就是永乐大帝-的良好关系。中国为马六甲提供保护,使之不受暹罗*以及其他敌人的袭击。因此,这片区域很安全平和,充满希望,繁荣昌盛。
    
    
    
    【*暹罗,泰国的旧称】
    
    
    
    The government structure of the Melaka Sultanate was like a pyramid with the Sultan at the apex as the all- powerful Head of State. Under him, there was a council of 4 Ministers, namely the Bendahara, who controlled the military, defence, and royal customs and traditions. The Temenggong, as Chief of Police, controlled internal affairs relating to peace and order. The third key post was held by the Penghulu Bendahari who was the Sultan’s Treasurer cum Secretary. The Laksamana was the Admiral who controlled the fleet.
    
    马六甲王国的政府结构是金字塔型的,位于塔顶的苏丹集所有大权于一身。在他之下有4位大臣。首先是Bendahara,掌管了军事,防御,皇家规范和传统。第二是Temenggong,治安总管,主管国内治安和秩序。第三位是Penghulu Bendahari,是苏丹的财政大臣和秘书。最后是Laksamana,海军舰队的司令。
    
    
    
    Under the four Ministers, there were 8 senior directors, all bearing the title Sri. Under them were 16 junior directors with the title Raja. At the bottom of the hierarchy were 32 government officers whose job was to aid the Ministers in carrying out their duties. Some of them were district or regional chiefs.
    
    在四位大臣之下,有8位高级官员,官衔是Sri. 他们之下是16位中级官员,官衔是Raja. 在系统底层的是32位政府职员,任务是协助大臣们行使职权。部分职员同时即为某些地区的首领。
    
    
    
    This administrative system was implemented by all the states in the Malay Peninsula, which at that time were united under the Melaka Sultanate. This system came to be known as the traditional political system of the Malay states.
    
    这个行政管理系统施行于马来半岛的所有邦国,这些邦国当时都统一在马六甲王国之下。这套系统被认为是马来邦国的传统政治体系。
    
    
    
    The Portuguese Conquest
    葡萄牙人的征服
    This is an extremely abridged version of the Portuguese conquest. The Portuguese arrived in Malacca in 1509, under Diego Lopes de Sequeira. Afraid that the Portuguese would be a threat to their trade monopoly, the Indian Muslim merchants had persuaded the Sultan to attack Diego Lopes de Sequeira’’s fleet. That stupid act, for it provided the Portuguese an excuse to attack Malacca. And they did, two years later, with a vengence, in the form of Alfonso de Albuquerque.
    
    
    
    非常非常简略地介绍一下葡萄牙人的征服史。葡萄牙人是1509年在迭戈.洛佩兹Diego Lopes de Sequeira的率领下到达马六甲的。由于印度穆斯林商人担心葡萄牙人会威胁到自己对商贸的垄断,他们说服了苏丹进攻迭戈.洛佩兹的舰队。这是一个愚蠢的举动,这为葡萄牙人提供了攻击马六甲的借口。而葡萄牙人也的确用上了这个借口,两年后,葡萄牙人阿方索Alfonso de Albuquerque*来了。
    
    
    
    【译者注
    
    *阿方索.亚伯奎Alfonso de Albuquerque,葡萄牙驻印度总督
    
    】
    
    
    
    When the Portuguest fled Malacca in 1509, they left behind twenty men who were taken prisoners. So when Albuquerque returned, he demanded, in addition to their release, full reimbursement for the cost of the second Portuguese voyage to Malacca, and the construction of the fortress. When the Sultan appeared to play for time, Albuquerque went on the offensive and attacked without further delay.
    
    当1509年葡萄牙人逃离马六甲时,他们抛下了被俘的20人。所以当阿方索回来时,他除了要求释放俘虏,还要求全额支付他们第二次来马六甲的航行花销及建设要塞的费用。当苏丹打算拖延时间时,阿方索毫不延迟发起了进攻。
    
    Central in disarming the Sultan’’s forces was to cut his supplies across the Malacca River. To do this, the Portuguese had to capture the bridge across the river. The first attack was launched on 25 July 1511, with limited success. Although they managed to capture the bridge, they were unable to hold on to it. In the second attack, on 10 August, he employed a new strategy by sending a tall junk towards the bridge, to act as a ladder from which his army can climb on board the bridge. After much fierce battle, the city of Malacca was finally in Portuguese hands on 24 August 1511.
    
    要瓦解苏丹的部队,重点是要切断他们横跨马六甲河的补给线。为此,葡萄牙人必须攻占横跨这条河的大桥。首次进攻是1511年7月25日发起的,只实现了部分目标。虽然葡萄牙人攻下过这座桥,但他们却无法守住它。于是,在8月10日的第二次进攻时,阿方索使用了新战术。他把一艘高大的帆船开到桥下作为云梯,他的部队则从这里爬上桥梁。经过残酷的战斗,马六甲城终于在1511年8月24日陷落了。
    
    The Sultan and his son fled inland, first to Pahang and then to Johor. They would not live to set foot on Malacca as its rulers again. The rest of the citizens of Malacca offered no resistence.
    
    
    
    苏丹和他的儿子逃往了内陆,首先去了Pahang,然后去了Johor。他们永远也不能以统治者的身份重复马六甲了。剩下的马六甲人不再抵抗*。
    
    
    
    【译者注
    
    *由此,马六甲王国,也就是明史里的满剌加,陷落葡萄牙手中。但由于明王朝早已固步自封,对外部世界毫不了解,也无意了解。直到正德十五年(1520年),马六甲国王派遣使者具奏求援,明廷才知其事。而明廷起初置若罔闻,并未采取任何措施。只是由于丘道隆、何鳌等人的奏请,才决定驱逐葡萄牙人,并将广东的一些地方官员治罪。1521年马六甲国王带着明廷所赐印信亲自来求援,明廷才向葡萄牙人交涉要求归还马六甲。明朝的要求遭到葡萄牙使团的拒绝,只得将其扣押直至他们答应归还马六甲国土为止。中葡交涉失败后,明朝政府曾派人要求暹罗出兵援救马六甲,但同样没有得到响应,未能挽回马六甲灭亡的命运。
    
    】
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    The Spice Islands香料群岛
    
    
    
    
    The island region where Tim Severin and his crew will sail is known as the Spice Islands. Another name for this group is the Moluccas or Maluku. Although romantically named, the Spice Islands have a long and bloody history.
    
    Tim Severin(本文作者,英国探险家,历史学家)和他的船员们即将到达的岛屿叫做香料群岛。这些岛屿还有个名字就是马鲁古,虽然名字很浪漫,香料群岛的历史却是漫长而血腥的。
    
    Today the importance of the Spice Islands is as one of the few surviving areas of primary tropical rainforest with a rich natural history. In previous centuries the islands’’ importance lay with their name. As the source of cloves and nutmeg they were the focus of attention from traders since 300 B.C. or possibly earlier. Chinese, Indian and Arab merchants sought out these riches long before the European powers came to Maluku. The Arab connection, in particular, meant that the Muslim Influence was very strong. Individual sultans amassed great wealth and came to control the precious spice trade. Indeed, by the early 1500s, Maluku was known as Jazirat-al-Muluk or "Land of Many Kings."
    
    香料群岛是仅存的几个拥有丰富原生历史文化的原始热带雨林地区之一,所以拥有相当的重要性。之前的几个世纪岛的名字与她的重要程度紧密相关。因为岛上出产丁香和肉蔻,从公元前300年或者更早的时候开始商人们就把目光集中在这里,在欧洲势力到达以前,中国商人,印度商人还有阿拉伯商人都在香料群岛发财。具体来说,因为阿拉伯商人的缘故,穆斯林在岛上的影响很大,各个苏丹聚敛大量财富,控制珍贵的香料贸易。事实上,1500年以前,香料群岛被称为Jazirat-al-Muluk 或者“万王之地”。
    
    It was at this time that Europeans first came to the Moluccas in search of cloves and nutmeg. They were highly valued as food preservatives. Wealthy ladies used to keep spices in lockets around their necks so they could freshen their breaths easily. Gentlemen added nutmeg to food and drink. Spices were also used for medicinal purposes, especially in the relief of colic, gout and rheumatism. Such great demand meant that the prices of nutmeg and cloves soared. To offset this crisis expeditions were launched to find the source of these spices and bring them directly back to Europe.
    
    就在那个时候(15世纪)欧洲人为了寻找丁香和肉蔻首次来到马鲁古群岛。丁香和肉蔻都被认为是高效的食品防腐剂。富家****们习惯将香料装进项链的鸡心了,这样她们会变得香喷喷的,绅士们把肉蔻加进食物和酒中。香料还有医用价值,特别是在治疗绞痛,痛风和风湿方面。如此巨大的需求意味着肉蔻和丁香价格的飙升。为了应付危机,欧洲人发起探险去寻找香料的产地,并把他们直接运回欧洲。
    
    Christopher Columbus was searching for the fabled route to the Indies when he arrived at the Americas in 1492. Not long after this the Portuguese enforced their rule on parts of the Moluccan Islands. Along with the spice traders came military forces and missionaries keen on converting the natives of the islands. Conflict soon broke out and the Portuguese brutally crushed the islanders. The natives continued to disrupt Portuguese trade and everyday life in the islands and within a century they were replaced by the Spanish. They did not last long either and lost out to the Dutch who governed the islands between 1605 and 1945.
    
    1492年哥伦布沿着传说中的路线去往印度时抵达了美洲,不久之后,葡萄牙人就把他们的秩序带到了马鲁古群岛的部分地区。随着香料商人而来的还有军队和传教士,他们希望当地人能皈依(他们的宗教)。冲突很快就爆发了,葡萄牙人残酷的镇压了岛上的原住民,可是原住民们还是不断袭扰葡萄牙人的贸易和生活,在一个世纪之内,葡萄牙人被西班牙人取代了,不过他们也没待多久就输给了荷兰人,荷兰人从1605年开始掌管该地区直到1945年。
    
    The period of Dutch rule is marked by the usage of vast plantations as a means of producing vast quantities of spices for the European markets. All the land was under the control of the Dutch East Indies Company and anyone caught selling land, however small, was executed. By the early 1800s new plantations of spices in Africa and India meant that there was a greater choice of supply available to the traders. As a consequence, prices fell and the Dutch were in trouble. It was around this time that Alfred Russel Wallace arrived in the Malay Archipelago.
    
    荷兰统治时期的特点是大量种植香料以大量供应欧洲市场。(岛上的)所有土地都收荷兰东印度公司掌控,任何人出售土地,哪怕只是一点点,都会被处决。在18世纪早期,新的香料种植地在非洲和印度被发现,这使得商人们的货源地又多了几个。而这一切的结果就是香料价格下降,荷兰陷入危机。就是在那个时候华莱士(英国的自然科学家,探险家等等,独立提出了自然选择与进化的关系,对达尔文的进化论很有帮助)抵达了马来群岛。
    
    Today, the Spice Islands make up Maluku Propinsi (or Maluku Province) of the Republic of Indonesia.
    
    今天,香料群岛成为了印尼共和国的Maluku Propinsi(马鲁古省)。
  

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